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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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英国人下午茶文化背后不为人知的故事******

试想一下,真正的英国人在你的眼中是什么模样。无论你的脑海中闪现出什么画面,我相信那人一定有着僵硬的上唇,并且手中端着一杯茶。没错,英国人就是这样,善于不露声色,酷爱饮茶。饮茶已经被彻头彻尾的英国化,成为英国文化中不可或缺的一部分,深刻影响着世界其他国家的人们对英国文化的认识。

The true story behind England’s tea obsession

And while it’s fairly common knowledge that Westerners have China to thank for the original cultivation of the tannic brew, it’s far less known that it was the Portuguese who inspired its popularity in England – in particular, one Portuguese woman.

众所周知,中国是最早开始喝茶的国家,西方人为此深表感激。但是,多亏了葡萄牙人,特别是一位葡萄牙女性,喝茶才得以在英国广泛传播,而这一点却鲜为人知。

Travel back in time to 1662, when Catherine of Braganza (daughter of Portugal’s King John IV) won the hand of England’s newly restored monarch, King Charles II, with the help of a very large dowry that included money, spices, treasures and the lucrative ports of Tangiers and Bombay. This hookup made her one very important lady: the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.

1662年,布拉干萨王朝(Braganza)的公主凯瑟琳(葡萄牙国王约翰四世之女)嫁给了英国国王查理二世,其嫁妆极其丰厚,包括金银财宝、香料以及经济价值巨大的重要港口丹吉尔和孟买。联姻之后,凯瑟琳成为英格兰、苏格兰与爱尔兰的王后,地位显赫。

When she relocated up north to join King Charles, she is said to have packed loose-leaf tea as part of her personal belongings; it would also have likely been part of her dowry. A fun legend has it that the crates were marked Transporte de Ervas Aromaticas (Transport of Aromatic Herbs) – later abbreviated to T.E.A.

之后,她一路北进与查理国王会合,据说其随身物品中包含一些散装茶叶;也许,这也是其陪嫁物品之一。有趣的是,传说这些茶叶在《芳香植物的运输》(Transporte de Ervas Aromaticas)一书中有所记载,该书后来被简称为“T.E.A.”。

When Catherine arrived in England, tea was being consumed there only as a medicine, supposedly invigorating the body and keeping the spleen free of obstructions. But since the young queen was used to sipping the pick-me-up as part of her daily routine, she no doubt continued her habit, making it popular as a social beverage rather than as a health tonic.

凯瑟琳刚到英国之时,茶叶只是作为一种药品在市场流通,药效是帮助人们振奋精神、理气健脾。但是,这位年轻的王后习惯于每天饮茶,坚持饮茶的习惯。久而久之,茶叶便不再是健康提神药品,发展成为社交饮品,开始在英国盛行。

“When Catherine married Charles, she was the focus of attention – everything from her clothes to her furniture became the source of court talk,” said Sarah-Beth Watkins, author of Catherine of Braganza: Charles II's Restoration Queen. “Her regular drinking of tea encouraged others to drink it. Ladies flocked to copy her and be a part of her circle.”

“与查理国王联姻之后,凯瑟琳迅速成为众人关注的焦点——她的穿着打扮、她使用的家具……所有与她相关的东西都成为王室谈资,”《布拉干萨王朝公主凯瑟琳:查理二世的王后》作者莎拉·贝丝·沃特金斯说。“她的日常饮茶活动引来许多人纷纷效仿。贵妇们纷涌而至,模仿其饮茶习惯以便融入王后的社交圈。”

Hot poet of the time, Edmund Waller, even wrote a birthday ode to her shortly after her arrival, which forever linked the queen and Portugal with the fashionable status of tea in England. He wrote:

“The best of Queens, and best of herbs, we owe

To that bold nation, which the way did show

To the fair region where the sun doth rise,

Whose rich productions we so justly prize.”

凯瑟琳嫁来英国不久,当红诗人埃德蒙德·瓦勒甚至为她写了一首生日颂,将这位来自葡萄牙的王后与英国的饮茶之风永远联系在了一起。诗歌中这样写道:

“最英明的王后,最神奇的植物,

那个勇敢的国家,

阳光沐浴着的美丽之地,

给予我们的丰厚恩赐,

我们讴歌着,

用一颗感恩的心。”

To be fair, tea could be found in England before Catherine arrived, but it wasn’t very popular. “Waller is recorded drinking tea in 1657, which is a whole six years before Catherine turns up,” said Markman Ellis, professor of 18th-Century Studies at Queen Mary, University of London, and co-author of Empire of Tea: The Asian Leaf that Conquered the World. “He is a well-known aficionado for tea, which is unusual because it was so expensive and everyone was drinking coffee at this time.”

准确来说,茶叶在凯瑟琳嫁来英国之前已经出现,但是当时并不流行。“据记载,瓦勒于1657年便有饮茶的习惯,这比凯瑟琳的出现早了整整六年,”伦敦玛丽王后大学的教授马克曼·埃利斯说,其致力于18世纪研究,与人合著《茶叶帝国:征服世界的亚洲树叶》。“他是有名的饮茶爱好者,这在当时并不多见,究其原因是茶叶价格昂贵,当时所有人都喝咖啡。”

The reason for the cost was threefold: England had no direct trade with China; tea from India wasn’t around yet; and the small quantities that the Dutch were importing were sold at a very high premium.

茶叶昂贵的原因有三:一是当时英国同中国没有直接的贸易往来;二是印度的茶叶还没有传到英国;三是荷兰人进口的茶叶数量少,所以售价非常高昂。

“It was very expensive because it came from China and it was taxed very heavily,” explained Jane Pettigrew, author of A Social History of Tea, winner of the 2014 World Tea Awards’ Best Tea Educator and director of studies at UK Tea Academy.

“茶叶之所以如此昂贵,是因为从中国进口的关税非常高,”简·佩蒂格鲁说,其著有《茶叶社会史》一书,在2014年世界茶业大奖中被授予最佳茶业教育工作者奖,担任英国茶学院研究主任。

Indeed it was so pricey (a pound went for as much as a working-class citizen made in a year), that, according to Ellis, “it ruled out anyone but the most elite and wealthiest sectors of society. So tea became associated with elite women’s sociability around the royal court, of which Catherine was the most famous emblem.”

实际上,当时茶叶的价格高得惊人(一英镑的价格相当于工薪阶级一年的收入),埃利斯还提道,“除了社会最上层、最富有的人,其他人都不可能负担得起茶叶。因此茶叶成为贵妇与王室结交的手段,通过茶叶与凯瑟琳结交便是最好的例子。”

And what happens with famous people? Non-famous people imitate them. “When the queen does something, everyone wants to follow suit, so very, very gradually by the end of the 17th Century, the aristocracy had started sipping small amounts of tea,” Pettrigrew said.

名人饮茶又有何妨呢?普通人会效仿名人饮茶。“无论王后做什么,其他人都会盲目效仿。于是,到了17世纪末,贵族们自然而然开始少量饮茶,”佩蒂格鲁说。

Of course, the upper class didn’t invent the ritual of tea-drinking themselves – they were imitators too. As Pettigrew recounted, “Until tea arrived with the Dutch, we [the English] didn’t know anything about tea. No sugar spoons, no cups, no tea kettles (only kitchen kettles), so we did what always happens: we copied the entire ritual from China. We imported Chinese tiny porcelain tea bowls, the saucers, the dishes for sugar, the small teapots.”

当然,饮茶仪式并不是上层阶级的发明,也是源于模仿。据佩蒂格鲁所述,“直到荷兰人带来茶叶,我们英国人才对茶叶有所了解。我们没有糖匙,没有茶杯,没有茶壶(只有厨房水壶),所以还是沿用老办法:模仿中国的整套饮茶仪式。我们从中国进口小的瓷茶杯、杯托、糖匙器具以及小茶壶。”

Catherine’s home country had a hand in in popularising this aspect of the tea experience, too. “Portugal was one of the routes [by which] porcelain got to Europe,” Ellis noted. “It was very expensive and very beautiful, and one of the things that made tea drinking attractive was all the pretty stuff that went with it, like having the latest iPhone.”

饮茶瓷器之所以风靡英国,还受到凯瑟琳的母国——葡萄牙的影响。“葡萄牙是瓷器进口到欧洲的路线之一,”埃利斯说道。“瓷器价格昂贵,但非常精致漂亮,饮茶之所以受欢迎的原因之一就是可以使用这些精美的茶具,就像拥有最新款苹果手机一样。”

Since it was so prized, porcelain was probably part of Catherine’s dowry, and, like other aristocratic ladies, she would have accrued many gorgeous trappings to pad out her tea sessions once she was living in England. Pettigrew explained, “She started it as an aristocratic habit in her palaces – very posh, very upper class, and so the ceremony that arrived from China was immediately associated with fine living. As soon as tea arrived, it had very strong connections to feminine women and very big houses, I suppose through Catherine, because the porcelain cost huge amounts of money. The poor had to make due with earthenware. So everything that was expensive had to do with the aristocracy. It’s the same as today: You buy expensive things to show how important you are.”

也许正因为瓷器贵重才能够作为凯瑟琳的嫁妆。像其他的贵妇一样,凯瑟琳开始在英国生活之后,利用这些精美之物增加下午茶的情趣。佩蒂格鲁解释说,“一开始,她只是在王室里饮茶,将其作为一种贵族的习惯,场面奢华,十足的上层阶级做派。因此,饮茶仪式自中国传入之后便迅速与高雅生活密不可分。茶叶一传入英国,便与贵妇、豪宅产生联系,我认为凯瑟琳在这个过程中发挥了重要作用,主要原因是瓷器的价格非常昂贵。穷人只配使用陶器,只有贵族才用得起一切贵重之物。现代社会也是如此:消费的东西越贵,代表你的地位越高。”

Eventually the lower classes transformed tea into a more egalitarian drink, but today, travellers to London can still experience the aristocratic pomp and circumstance at upscale hotels’ afternoon tea services, most notably at the Langham Hotel’s Palm Court in London (which claims to be the birthplace of afternoon tea), the famed Ritz London and Claridge’s.

后来,下层阶级使饮茶变得更加平民化。但在当今社会,伦敦的游客依然可以通过高档酒店提供的下午茶服务体验贵族的奢华,尤其是在伦敦朗廷酒店(Langham Hotel)的廷廊(据称这里是下午茶的诞生地)、赫赫有名的伦敦丽兹酒店(Ritz London)和凯莱奇酒店(Claridge's)。

You can find fancy tea events in Portugal too, but even there, the link to Queen Catherine is not well known. In the historic municipality of Sintra, though, one hotel is trying to change that. At the Tivoli Palácio de Seteais Sintra Hotel, general manager Mario Custódio is about to launch a special afternoon tea themed after Catherine in October. “In school we don’t get this [history],” Custódio said. “I had no idea. Even the Portuguese don’t know this.”

此外,您还可以在葡萄牙体验极其盛大的饮茶仪式。尽管如此,就算在葡萄牙,英国饮茶之风与凯瑟琳王后的渊源也鲜为人知。然而,古镇辛特拉(Sintra)的一个酒店要努力改变这一状况。这就是提弗里瑟特阿斯皇宫酒店(Tivoli Palácio de Seteais Sintra Hotel),酒店总经理马里奥·库斯托迪奥(Mario Custódio)举办以凯瑟琳为主题的下午茶活动。“读书时,我们不了解这段历史,”库斯托迪奥说,“我什么也不清楚,就连其他葡萄牙人对此也一无所知。”

The area of Sintra, spread across lush green mountains about 30 minutes outside Lisbon, is a Unesco World Heritage Site, noted for its concentrated displays of European romantic architecture. The Seteais Palace, built in the 1780s by Dutch consul Daniel Gildemeester, is just one of several ornate, whimsical estate homes that dot the Sintra landscape; wedding-cake follies overlooking intricate, sprawling gardens and parks. Queen Catherine never lived here, but the concentration of old wealth and must-see mansions makes it the perfect place to reflect on what the lives of Portuguese nobility used to be like. You can easily imagine opulently dressed noblewomen gathering in opulently draped drawing rooms, clinking teacups and swapping news and gossip.

辛特拉地区距离里斯本大约30分钟的行程,向外延伸到植被茂盛的山脚下。这里因云集欧洲浪漫主义建筑而闻名,被列入教科文组织世界遗产名录。瑟特阿斯宫(Seteais Palace)由荷兰领事丹尼尔·吉尔德梅斯特(Daniel Gildemeester)于18世纪80年代建成,宫殿装饰奢华、造型独特,成为辛特拉景观中的一道亮丽风景线。婚礼蛋糕式样的怪异装饰物高高耸立于交错蔓生的花园与公园之上。虽然凯瑟琳王后从未居住于此,但这里云集的古老财富、经典的建筑群将葡萄牙贵族过去的生活呈现得淋漓尽致。想象一下,一群衣着华丽的贵妇正在富丽堂皇的会客厅聚会,时不时传来清脆的茶杯撞击声,以及叽叽喳喳的交头接耳声。

For Custódio, bringing these little-known bits of history to life is what makes the travel experience special and personal for visitors. “I’m trying to [present] these things that are very unknown because that is luxury today,” he said.

库斯托迪奥认为,将这些鲜为人知的历史碎片通过现实呈现出来,可以帮助游客获得更独特、更个性化的旅游体验。“我之所以努力将这些不为人知的历史呈现出来,是因为这些是现代社会的财富,”他说。

The daily tea service (open only to hotel guests), will highlight aspects of the Portuguese connection to this genteel tradition. For instance, Custódio is working with a historian to serve the type of tea Catherine would have drank (Ellis thinks it’s most likely a green tea, as no tea came out of India until the 1830s, long after she’d passed away). Marmalade will also be part of the menu, as that’s another part of the Catherine of Braganza mythology that Custódio has stumbled across in his research. The tale goes that, since some of the best oranges in the world come from Portugal, Catherine had them shipped over to her new English home regularly. The ones that didn’t make the journey in top condition were turned into marmalade. Of course, whole oranges were a more prized snack, so if Queen Catherine gave you a gift of marmalade instead of oranges, it meant she didn’t think that much of you.

日常下午茶服务(只对酒店客人开放)能够凸显葡萄牙与高雅饮茶传统之间的渊源。例如,库斯托迪奥正与历史学家合作,希望能够做出凯瑟琳王后当时饮用的茶(埃利斯认为很可能是绿茶,原因是王后死后很长时间,直到19世纪30年代,才有印度来的茶叶引入到英国)。库斯托迪奥还希望能够做出橘子酱,这是因为在研究过程中,他偶然发现橘子酱也是布拉干萨王朝公主凯瑟琳诸多神秘传说之一。据说,世界上最好的橘子有一部分来自于葡萄牙,凯瑟琳王后会定期将这些橘子运往其英国的新家。有些橘子在运输途中品质下降,最后就被做成了橘子酱。若是能享用到完好无损的橘子自然最好,但如果凯瑟琳王后送给您的礼物是橘子酱而不是橘子,那说明她并不是非常看重您呀。

The spread at the Seteais Palace will come with no such judgments. Custódio is simply hoping that by mingling with visitors during the themed tea service and by gifting them with a small book – complete with QR codes for more photos, historical facts and fun stories – he’ll be helping to share some of the culture and colour of his home and reinforce the long-term influence of a little-known transplant queen.

宣传瑟特阿斯宫,当然不是为了对您评头论足。库斯托迪奥的目的很简单,希望为游客提供主题下午茶服务、给游客赠送一本小书。书中印有二维码,扫描二维码可以获取更多图片、历史资料及有趣的故事。他只是想通过这些方式,帮助游客了解自己家乡的文化与美景,发掘远嫁他乡的王后如何对英国饮茶文化产生深远的影响。

“We Portuguese want to believe that Catarina was responsible for the tea. I don’t want this history to die.”

“凯瑟琳王后对茶文化做出了巨大的贡献,我们葡萄牙人不愿意对此视而不见。我希望这段珍贵的历史能够得以延续。”

甘肃两姐妹被洪水卷走失踪 当地警方不予立案******

(原标题:当地警方不予立案 称家长应负主要责任)

(中国青年报·中青在线记者 章正)甘肃省兰州市红古区委宣传部今天给中国青年报·中青在线记者发来的一份情况说明显示,对于两姐妹被洪水卷走一事(具体见中国青年报·中青在线7月19日报道《甘肃一水电站泄洪 两名女孩被卷走》),兰州市红古区警方认为,这是一起落水儿童失踪的意外事件,不予立案,家长应该负主要责任。

说明称,7月12日15时左右,红古区平安镇夹滩村湟水河道玩耍的两名女童不幸落水失踪。据了解,落水失踪的两名女童年龄分别为8岁和10岁,就读于西固区一小学。事件发生后,红古区平安镇党委、镇政府高度重视,立即将相关情况及时上报红古区委、区政府,动员镇机关干部及夹滩村村民搜救两名落水儿童,同时请求公安、消防部门出动人员赶赴现场全力搜救,镇党委、镇政府对家属进行了安抚慰问,并积极与西固区教育部门联系,通报了情况。

7月13日清晨,平安镇机关干部和夹滩村村民与西固区教育部门相关人员继续开展了搜救工作。搜救中当地政府还动用了无人机。为进一步做好搜救和安抚工作,平安镇成立了以镇党委书记为组长的应急搜救领导小组,并设立了搜救、安抚、舆情等工作组。连日来,各工作小组围绕各自工作职责,发动镇上干部及夹滩村村民沿河道一直进行搜寻。

在情况说明中,红古警方介绍:7月12日15时47分,红古公安分局110指挥中心接到求助电话,报警人称她的两个女孩,一个10岁,一个8岁,在河边玩耍时被水冲走了。接到报警后,指挥中心立即指示平安镇派出所协助搜救。红古警方认为,这是一起落水儿童失踪意外事件,不予立案。对这起意外事件,家长应该负主要责任,家长对孩子监管责任不到位是主要原因。

针对家属反映河道没有设置明显标志一事,红古区水务局有关人员表示:他们查阅了相关资料,也咨询了上级部门专家咨询,法律并无明文规定河道管理人员设置警示标志和保证进入河道人员安全的义务。而且落水失踪地点上游为永靖福川水电站,该水电站属于永靖县审批监管,距离落水失踪地点不到3公里。

平安镇负责人介绍,事件发生后,镇上从人文关怀的角度出发,积极组织人员搜救,并对家属进行安抚慰问,“镇上做了许多工作”。

红古区信访部门表示,其对家属上访反映的诉求做了耐心细致的接待和答复,对家属提出的水电站泄洪造成孩子失踪等问题,区相关部门都作了解释和说明,对其他责任追究的诉求已建议家属通过司法渠道维护权益。

孩子的父亲并不认可警方的说法,他对记者表示:“两个娃娃是在裸露的河边玩,并没有下水,被水电站泄洪两米多高的浪卷走,这是人为原因造成的悲剧。”

他坚称,尽管水电站在临夏永靖县境内,但是孩子落水的地点属于兰州红古区平安镇,自己家两个孩子被水卷走,是政府对水电站监管不严的结果,大坝泄洪前无任何通告,属于安全漏洞,政府也有责任。

当地宣传部门表示,目前,当地区镇两级还在继续配合家属全力开展搜救工作,同时,对家属上访的问题积极作好解释和疏导。(来源:中国青年报)

netease本文来源:中青在线-中国青年报 责任编辑:杜磊_NN2415

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陕西秦岭国家公园创建获批 秦岭保护“重磅加码”******

  本报讯(记者 李佳 实习生曹睿洁)10月25日,陕西省林业局传来喜讯,秦岭国家公园创建获得国家公园管理局的正式批复,同意陕西创建秦岭国家公园工作。至此,秦岭保护“重磅加码”,秦岭核心资源将得到完整原真保护。

  秦岭具有典型北亚热带与暖温带过渡特征生态系统和明显垂直带谱,保存了许多古老、珍稀、特有野生动植物物种,具有突出的国家代表性。创建秦岭国家公园,对维护我国南北分界线自然生态系统平衡、保护中央水塔、筑牢我国地理中央生态安全屏障具有重要意义。

  按照创建要求,陕西将抓紧推进以下重点工作:科学确定边界范围和分区。衔接《陕西省秦岭生态环境保护条例》,对接国土“三调”以及生态保护红线划定工作,结合自然保护地整合优化成果,科学确定秦岭国家公园边界范围和管控分区,提出差别化管控措施。对各类自然保护地提出具体整合优化方案。有序调处矛盾冲突。核实永久基本农田、人工商品林、矿业权、小水电、景区景点等矛盾冲突情况,按照生态优先原则,提出主要矛盾调处方案。摸清松材线虫病疫木疫情底数,制定处置方案,强化疫情防控工作。

  提出管理机构设置方案。根据中央编委关于国家公园管理机构设置的相关文件精神,整合涉及的自然保护地相关机构和人员编制,研究提出《秦岭国家公园管理机构设置方案》。

  加强生态保护修复。严格保护天然林,加大低质低效林改造,巩固退耕还林成果。推进破坏山体矿山废弃地修复治理。逐步改造大熊猫等重点保护物种栖息地中人工纯林。建设生态廊道,加强重要物种栖息地连通性。

  推动社区转型发展。推动社区居民生产生活方式转型,探索建立社区共建共管协调机制。设置公益岗位,加强管护人员培训。加强宣传凝聚社会共识。传播国家公园理念,拓宽宣传推广渠道,引导社会舆论,形成群众主动保护、社会广泛参与的良好氛围。遵循国家相关法律法规,结合《陕西省秦岭生态环境保护条例》,研究制定秦岭国家公园管理建设相关地方性法规。

  下一步,国家公园管理局将会同陕西建立局省联席会议协调推进机制,积极协调有关部门,在相关政策、资金项目和技术支撑等方面给予倾斜支持,推进秦岭国家公园创建工作。根据陕西创建工作完成情况,国家公园管理局将组织开展评估验收,并会同陕西编制《秦岭国家公园设立方案》,按程序报批。


来源:三秦都市报

编辑:王蜀周秦

戴尔灵越7000系列笔记本要出14.5英寸机型?******

  近日,有爆料称戴尔灵越7000系列笔记本要推出14.5英寸屏幕机型,并放出了一组真机的实拍图。当真如此的话,那么戴尔灵越7000系列笔记本堪称是业界首款采用14.5英寸屏幕的笔记本电脑了。

  目前笔记本屏幕尺寸主要包括有11.6英寸、13.3英寸、14.1英寸、15.6英寸、17.3英寸以及18.4英寸。14.5英寸比主流的14.1英寸稍大。

  从戴尔灵越7000系列笔记本这组谍照来看,其采用了银色外观设计,顶盖上面设计有戴尔的LOGO。

  它的屏幕采用了小翘根设计,当展开笔记本的时候,屏幕会把机身翘起来,进而实现更好的散热效果。

  更为引人注意的是,这款新机的屏幕采用了四面窄边框设计,实现了非常高的屏占比。同时,屏幕上边框的摄像头和麦克风识音口依旧保留了下来。

  据悉,这款新机的屏幕还将采用物理防蓝光技术,能够有效阻拦屏幕有害蓝光的同时,避免了普通防蓝光屏幕偏黄的问题,达到“护眼不偏黄”的理想效果。

美国贸易代表戴琪称:在实施“印太经济框架”上,我们将挑战极限

1.外媒继续关注我新型舰载机:光洁的令人难以置信

2.最大规模“环太军演”?金一南:这是最不平等的国际秩序!

3.著名剧作家、原中央实验话剧院院长刘树纲病逝

4.雪域高原边防官兵过冬保障全面加强

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